Pavlov Institute of Physiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences originates from the Physiological Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences, which was founded in 1925 on the base of the Physiological Laboratory.
The first Director of the Institute of Physiology until 1936 was an outstanding scientist, the first Nobel Prize winner in theoretical medicine, Academician Ivan P. Pavlov. The main goal of the Institute was to study physiology of brain hemispheres by the method of conditional reflexes. By the early 1930s, the main problem investigated at the Institute included regularities of the activity of brain hemispheres, interactions of the excitation and inhibition processes, types of the nervous system, experimental neuroses as well as the higher nervous activity of primates. In 1934, new Departments were founded (Anatomy, Biochemistry, Biophysics, Experimental Psychology) and the ground was provided for detailed studies on the structural and physico-chemical basis of physiology and psychology of theanimal and human brain. Initiated by Pavlov, neurogenetical investigations began.
Investigations of the Institute not only are of important theoretical significance, but also promote solution of many practical problems of medicine, pedagogy, informatics, husbandry and give grounds for development and introduction of effective ways of an increase of organism adaptational possibilities and human activity optimization under [Institute in Koltushy] onditions of the ecological and social stress.
The researchers of the Institute traditionally perform a large international cooperation: their studies are carried out with support both of the Russian and of various foreign programs and foundations. In the frame of this cooperation, for the recent decade, the Institute researchers went out more than 500 times for foreign missions both for performance of cooperative investigations and for participation in scientific events. During the same time, more that 700 foreign scientists were accepted at the Institute.